FINAL ANSWER OR FATAL ATTRACTION?
by G. Richard Fisher
When the April 27, 1998, edition of Christianity Today magazine ran a full-page advertisement promoting a new line of resources by the respected Christian publisher, David C. Cook Communications, how could one doubt the trustworthiness of such materials? If along with that, they were endorsed in that same promotion by J.I. Packer, Alister McGrath, Luis Palau and Leighton Ford, how could one hesitate even for a moment how could one resist? Surely this is a bandwagon worthy of a ride.
The Alpha program sounds like a great idea. After all, with such heavyweights backing it and a program to facilitate an introduction to the Christian faith (with weekend retreats and group discussions) it has to be good or does it? If nothing else, one must admit that Alpha is packaged impressively for maximum sales.
Popularity does not mean that something is true. If it did, Santa Claus and the Easter Bunny would be real entities. Popularity does not automatically equal truth nor can it create truth.
The Alpha Course originated in the United Kingdom at Holy Trinity Brompton Church an Anglican church in London through curates Nicky Gumbel and Sandy Millar. The earliest versions go as far back as 1977. Gumbel began teaching the current version in 1990. He acknowledges that it is always open to revision.
Author Dave Hunt reminds us that Holy Trinity Brompton in London ... became the center of holy laughter for England and Europe.1 It has become known for the knock em down services and slaying marathons that are traced to a purported anointing by the former Toronto Airport Vineyard Church pastored by John Arnott. Taxis are provided at Holy Trinity for parishioners too drunk in the Spirit to drive home from services. Such activity is a blatant violation of the rules of decorum in worship outlined in 1 Corinthians 14.
Evangelist Stephen Hill, who helps oversee the pandemonium at the Brownsville Assembly of God in Pensacola, Fla., claims he received his anointing and powerful slaying in the Spirit abilities from Holy Trinity Brompton. People believe he is a conduit for the power. Our personal experience with Hill is you go down only if you want to go down.2
The Brownsville Outpouring has now become a traveling road show with all kinds of revival paraphernalia for sale which generates hundreds of thousands of dollars a year for the revivals key players.3 The Pensacola News Journal articles document that Brownsville leaders continue to be loose with the truth as they rake in incredibly huge amounts of cash which are being partly socked into personal real estate. Brownsvilles power, in the words of Rev. Ike, seems to be green power in the final analysis.
The Feb. 9, 1998, issue of Christianity Today featured a four-page news report on the Alpha Course titled The Alpha-Brits Are Coming. The magazine explained the acronym ALPHA:
AAnyone interested in finding out more about the Christian faith; LLearning and Laughter; PPasta (eating together gives people the chance to know each other); HHelping one another (small groups are used for discussion of issues raised during the lectures); AAsk anything. No question is seen as too simple or too hostile.4
The same article went on to say that not all is well in Alpha land:
An infectious enthusiasm, entrepreneurial spirit, and a bold plan for growth are all trademarks among Alphas top leaders. But not everyone is cheering Alpha onward. Some church leaders have found Alpha teaching too charismatic, too experience-driven, and too negative about traditional churches. Martyn Percy, director of the Lincoln Theological Institute for the Study of Religion and Society of the University of Sheffield, England, has commented about Alpha that it is a package rather than a pilgrimage. In a recent essay, he said, It is a confident but narrow expression of Christianity, which stresses the personal experience of the Spirit over the Spirit in the church. ... The Alpha approach has been faulted for pushing an experience-driven approach to evangelism that sidesteps intellectual difficulties.5
There is no doubting that the Alpha program, like many other fads, caught on with the help of slick marketing by David C. Cook Communications and is enjoying worldwide success, at least for now. The previously mentioned Christianity Today advertisement says that a half-million people took the course in 1997 alone.
The Alpha Course is an array of videos, audiocassettes, books, booklets, testimonials and leaders videos and guidebooks. One would have to spend hundreds of dollars to buy all the paraphernalia.
The Alpha Course and program is also promoted and endorsed by glowing personal testimonies but on close examination has many weaknesses and falls short of meeting biblical scrutiny. Isaiah 8:20 reminds us: To the law and to the testimony! If they do not speak according to this word, it is because there is no light in them. Jim Jones, even in the final hours of his regime in Guyana, could produce glowing testimonials. Collective cheerleading does not create truth.
One such testimony reported by Christianity Today is that of Keith Prestridge, a former punk rocker:
Prestridge offered a pugilists description of Alphas Holy Spirit weekend: They laid hands on me, and I knew release, you know? I know those of you who have felt the Spirit know what its like. Its like being in a good fight and suddenly being knocked out.6
One would have to search long and hard to find a verse that would compare the Holy Spirit to a boxer who beats up people! This is reminiscent of John Wimbers fantasy of Jesus as a sumo wrestler who beats people around.7 And one has to look even harder for a Scripture verse that says you can feel the Holy Spirit.
Though the Alpha Course is mostly held in Vineyard and Charismatic churches, Roman Catholic, Anglican and other groups are using them.8 Doctrinal issues have been diminished or ignored in spite of 1 Timothy 4:13, 16.
The British publication, The Christian Research Network Journal, has scrutinized the Alpha program and come up with six major criticisms. The Journal says the Alpha Course is: massively over-hyped and spiritually deceptive ... with its wholly inadequate view of Christian conversion and experience.9
Chris Hand in his analysis of Alpha concludes the following:
1. The God of Alpha is not the God of the Bible. ... it does not present us with the God who has revealed Himself in the Bible. ... It simply fails to tell us anything we need to know about God.
2. The plight of man in Alpha is not as serious as in the Bible. ... Alpha does not use strong terms and leaves us rather unclear about where we stand. As one follows its argument, sin is more to be seen in the way we have messed up our lives.... For all the gravity of sin, Alpha never allows us to feel too bad about ourselves. It never permits us to see ourselves in Gods sight. That is a big omission.
3. The Jesus Christ of Alpha is not the Jesus Christ of the Bible. ... despite having part of the course titled Why did Jesus die?, it is unable in the final analysis to answer this question. ...
4. The love of God in Alpha is not the love of God of the Bible. ... The God of the Bible is love but it is love that is seen in His willingness to save sinners. ... without the context of Gods holiness and absolute perfection, the meaning of love is lost to us. ...
5. The Holy Spirit of Alpha is not the Holy Spirit of the Bible. ... Alphas Spirit appears to work in ways that lie outside the confines of Scripture. Whoever it is that people are introduced to at the Alpha Weekend, it is not the Holy Spirit. But whoever this mysterious guest is, he is equally at home with the ecstatic gatherings of New Age enthusiasts and non-Christian religions alike.
6. Conversions in Alpha are not like the conversions in the Bible. ... More often than not it is an emotional experience about the love of God but without any understanding of holiness or the need to be saved from our sins. ... For all its efforts, Alpha does not help us to know God. It does not describe the true and living God for us. It does not diagnose mans condition accurately enough. ... it is unable to supply us with the good news.10
Alpha is just new window dressing on the old Holy Ghost bartender theme, the Toronto theme and the Brownsville reruns. It could be retitled Steps to Frenzy or Finding God in My Feelings, or Letting Out the Animal Inside. The result is not unlike the old Esalen groups, primal scream therapy or the lunacy of a drug experience.
Alan Howe informs us:
Central to the Alpha Course is not the Christian gospel, but the so-called Holy Spirit Weekend which is in fact a thinly-disguised opportunity for initiation into the Toronto Blessing experience. Nicky Gumbel, curate at Holy Trinity, Brompton had received the blessing from Eleanor Mumford of the South-West London Vineyard following her return from Toronto in May 1994. Subsequent to this event, Toronto-style teaching concerning the reception of the Holy Spirit took centre-stage. An unknown evangelistic tool had thus become a syncretistic mixture of orthodoxy and heresy.11
ALPHA SHAKE AND BAKE
A close look at the words of Nicky Gumbel, as quoted by the CRN Journal, show the real direction of the Alpha Course. Gumbel unashamedly is trying to move people into esoteric experiences, altered states of consciousness, self-hypnosis and mindless emotionalism and then tell his followers it is all of God. Gumbel uses Gods words to move people toward the ultimate end which is hysteria, loss of control and mindlessness.
Gumbel says that the purpose of the Holy Spirit weekends is to expect all kinds of strange manifestations and bodily agitations. Consider his comments:
Sometimes, when people are filled, they shake like a leaf in the wind. Others find themselves breathing deeply as if almost physically breathing in the Spirit. ... Physical heat sometimes accompanies the filling of the Spirit and people experience it in their hands or some other part of their bodies. One person described a feeling of glowing all over. Another said she experienced liquid heat. Still another described burning in my arms when I was not hot.12
Surely this cannot be far behind the Mormons burning in the bosom where truth is sacrificed for feeling and we no longer walk by faith but by tingles, sensations and subjective, fallible impressions.
Someone should make Gumbel aware that one can get the same results practicing pagan Kundalini. Edward Andrews, in documenting the emotional excesses of the heretical Shakers, reports phenomenon that would parallel Gumbels excesses.
To suggest that the kinds of manifestations encouraged in Alpha could be remotely connected to Christianity is absurd. They are more readily a product of self-hypnosis, suggestion and altered states of consciousness or even perhaps the demonic and occultic.
The Alpha Course may very well be a huge success in a society driven by a need for new experiences, new highs and out-of-control emotionalism but when held up to the pure light of Scripture, it is an enormous failure. No matter who publishes it or who endorses it, the final question is: How does it all conform to the Word of God?
In his interview with Christianity Today, Gumbel indicated that the Alpha Course is evolving. What Alpha is today, it may not be tomorrow. Could it get worse? Gumbel said: We havent got everything perfect. Alpha is alive. Its not fixed.13
This writer has read Gumbels book, Questions of Life, which is the main text for Alpha teaching. The 263-page volume relies on mainstream evangelical writers, as well as the likes of the aberrant John Wimber. Though agreeing for the most part with the CRN Journal article, this writer might have stressed things from a slightly different perspective and have had less concern for a few of the points. Maybe we could call it giving the devil his due.
CRN said that The God of Alpha is not the God of the Bible. It is true that Questions of Life presents no real doctrine of God nor does it seek to teach about His person, character or attributes. Alpha leaders would probably reply that their introduction to the Christian faith is limited in nature or to a particular theme. Namely, that it mainly addresses Jesus, salvation and living the Christian life and is not presenting systematic theology of all the doctrines of Scripture as do other books.
But failure to present even the basics about the person of God (in evangelism) may leave the person being witnessed to, in various forms of mental idolatry or a new age mentality, which is a faulty foundation for any supposed conversion. Alpha passes over the person of God. Evangelization without some proper understanding of God is suspect and deficient. Here CRN is absolutely right.
Secondly, the plight of man in Alpha is not as serious as in the Bible. In fairness, Gumbel does talk of the pollution of sin, as well as the power of sin and the penalty of sin.14 He does elaborate on Romans 3:23.15 Gumbel does talk about the evil that comes out of a mans heart and our guilt because of breaking Gods laws.16 Gumbels emphasis on the consequences of sin, which he discusses early in the book, pulls the reader in by way of identification. Gumbel has not entirely missed it here, though he does at other points.
Next is the comment that the Jesus Christ of Alpha is not the Jesus Christ of the Bible. In his chapter, Who Is Jesus?, Gumbel draws straight from Josh McDowell, C.S. Lewis and F.F. Bruce. Gumbel does a fairly good job on the deity of Christ, fulfilled prophecies and the resurrection of the Savior. How could he not have in transcribing from the three above-mentioned scholars? In Gumbels section, Why Did Jesus Die?, there was enough information on substitution and crucifixion, as well as Scripture citations on the work of Christ, to satisfy this writer.
The successive comment that the love of God in Alpha is not the love of the God of the Bible is a deficiency which could well go back to the first point. In stressing the love of God apart from the balance of all His other attributes, one is left with faulty views of God. Love without holiness and justice is not real love at all.
Concerning the observation that the Holy Spirit of Alpha is not the Holy Spirit of the Bible, Gumbel devotes 13 pages giving a fairly mainstream answer to Who Is The Holy Spirit?17 The Holy Spirit, in Questions of Life, is presented in orthodox terms and in textbook fashion. The big problem comes in the pages to follow, which speaks to the issue of: How does the Holy Spirit act and what does He do to believers?
Here, Gumbel wanders off the biblical path and into the twilight zone of speculation and emotionalism. The Holy Spirit of Alpha is not the Comforter who assists us in the development of the fruit of the Spirit and practical Christian living but is a capricious being who makes us do all kinds of weird and crazy things. His theme song could well be Shake, Rattle and Roll. If one could speak of heresies in sanctification, it would be here. If there are converts, they are now thrown into the briars and thickets of pure speculation, human imagination and emotional excess.
The believer is inundated with teaching about tongues-speaking and burning body parts.18 We are asked and expected to believe in the late John Wimbers words of knowledge.19 The old party line on healing is spelled out.20 We are instructed to seek guidance in visions, voices and dreams.21 The maternity room turns into the twilight zone and a maze for the new converts.
This is typical charismatic fare without a hint from Gumbel that some things in the Bible may be historic and descriptive, not necessarily prescriptive. No one has recently reproduced the parting of the Red Sea (or any sea), manna from heaven, the raising of the dead or miraculous deliverances from prison, but only sensationalism that man can produce emotionally and in altered states. In fact, Gumbels speculation about how the Spirit works misrepresents the Holy Spirit and His work today. There is much attention to sensationalism and little to the fruit of the Spirit. CRN is right on in this criticism.
Finally, CNR remarks that the conversions in Alpha are not like conversions in the Bible. Time will tell on this one. But conversions based on a faulty foundation and misinformation about God cannot last. Converts (if they are) led into the quicksand of emotions, altered states of consciousness, wild emotional weekends, and the pursuit of dreams and visions, have no real future and will wash out. The conversion stories that CRN detailed are questionable and are more like occultic experiences than Christian ones. One can only mourn for these converts. Only God knows if they are truly born or stillborn.
One area of major concern not addressed by CRN is Gumbels teaching of Kingdom Now theology. Kingdom Now theology (sometimes called Dominionism or Triumphalism) is the teaching that we can now have (with enough faith) all or most of the physical and health benefits promised at Christs ultimate and perfect Kingdom. In other words, we can begin to claim for ourselves most Kingdom benefits here and now.
The illusion that we can now have the physical aspects of Gods perfect future Kingdom is expressed in this way by Gumbel, The Kingdom is both now and not yet.22 Gumbel also says that the age to come can be realized in principle in this age. He goes on to affirm:
We live between the times, when the age to come has broken into history. The old age goes on, but the powers of the new era have erupted into this age. ... healing is one of the signs of the Kingdom which was inaugurated by Jesus Christ and continues to this day. Hence we should expect God to continue to heal miraculously today as part of His Kingdom activity.23
Apologist Hank Hanegraaff appraises the Kingdom Now illusions in these words:
Leaders of the Counterfeit Revival demand the Kingdom now! in this life, with all of its attendant material wealth, public accolades, physical health, and earthly power.24
Gumbel bases his Kingdom Now theology on his misinterpretation of two Scriptures. First, he cites the questionable (and often disputed) Mark 16:15-20. And like most of his persuasion, he is selective. He does not press the verse and suggest that he handles poisonous serpents or that he can empty out cemeteries. Why not do it all?
The Mark 16 passage cited above is hotly disputed as to authenticity. Historically the orthodox position on the Scripture has been the inspiration and inerrancy of the original autographs. No one should base major claims on a few verses that are legitimately questionable. The rejection of these verses based on internal and external evidence in no way alters crucial doctrines of the Christian life.25
Charles R. Erdman, commenting on the Gospel of Mark, affirms that: The closing verses of this Gospel are commonly regarded as an appendix, added by a later hand.26
The Geneva Bible explains the controversy over the ending of the Gospel of Mark:
Scholars differ regarding whether these verses were originally part of this Gospel. Some important early Greek manuscripts lack these verses, other manuscripts have vv. 9-20 (known as the Longer Ending), and still others have a Shorter Ending (roughly one verse long). A few manuscripts have both the Shorter Ending and the Longer Ending. Because of these differences some scholars believe that vv. 9-20 were added later and not written by Mark.27
In his further attempts to justify Kingdom Now ideas, Gumbel also quotes John 14:12 that says those that believe will do greater works than Jesus. If Gumbels view is true he should lead the way in regularly walking on water, multiplying food, raising the dead, demonstrating a transfiguration body, changing water to wine, healing masses of incurable diseases, controlling storms and getting tax money from the mouth of fish. After all, how else could we do greater works than Jesus? Certainly Gumbel is not a model of his own teaching. Having someone fall down or say their headache is gone or they have a warm feeling in their elbow is a comic illusion and a charade when compared to the power and scope of the ministry of Christ.
Gumbel should be honest and point out that many able expositors say that the greater works have to do with more extensive results in the conversion of more sinners. The word greater is not used to show the exertion of power but rather the effects of Gospel preaching. Christs lifetime ministry (as miraculous as it was) ended with just a few at the cross. His post-resurrection ministry through the Apostles and the Church has brought untold millions to the experience of salvation.
Alexander Maclaren observes:
... the comparison is drawn between the limited sphere and the small results of Christs work upon earth, and the worldwide sweep and majestic magnitude of the results of the application of that work by His servants witnessing work. The wider and more complete spiritual results achieved by the ministration of the servants than by the ministration of the Lord is the point of comparison here. And I need only remind you that the poorest Christian who can go to a brother soul, and by word or life can draw that soul to a Christ whom it apprehends as dying for its sins and raised for its glorifying, does a mightier thing than it was possible for the Master to do by life or lip whilst He was here upon earth.28
Likewise, distinguished Bible teacher Oliver B. Greene points out:
Greek scholars tell us that this phrase in the Greek reads, And greater than these shall he do. Notice the word works is not there; therefore it stands to reason that Jesus was not referring to physical miracles, but rather to something else that would be of greater magnitude than raising a dead person or healing a sick body. The apostles would do something greater than the miracles He had performed, and I do not doubt that He was speaking of the preaching of the Gospel. Preaching the Gospel of a risen and exalted Christ, proclaiming the grace of God to every creature, pointing souls from darkness to light and causing unbelievers to be born of the Spirit is a far greater miracle than healing a leper or causing a withered arm to be made whole.29
Dr. Harry Ironside further points out:
When you realize that when Jesus left this scene, committing His gospel to a little group of eleven men in order that they might carry it to the ends of the earth, at that time the whole world, with the exception of a few in Israel, was lost in the darkness of heathenism. But in three hundred years Christianity closed nearly all the temples of the heathen Roman Empire, and numbered its converts by millions. These were the greater works, and down through the centuries He still carries on this ministry.30
Charles Ryrie comments on John 14:12:
Greater in extent (through the worldwide preaching of the gospel) and effect (the spiritual redemption and placing in the body of Christ multitudes of people since the day of Pentecost).31
In The Geneva Study Bibles Gospel of John, the following commentary is offered:
14:12 greater works than these. History proves that Jesus is not affirming that each believer will do greater miracles than He did. The churchs work in the power of the Holy Spirit will be greater than Jesus works in number and territory.32
Is the Kingdom now, in any sense? Certainly the Kingdom was embodied in Christ. There was a partially now aspect as the King walked the earth healing sicknesses and commanding demons, giving us a glimpse of the perfect Kingdom. Since His Ascension, our Lord, through the Holy Spirit, extends the spiritual blessings of the Kingdom through forgiveness, redemption and salvation. He Himself said, My Kingdom is not of this world (John 18:36). The perfect and completed Kingdom is yet to come.
A Sunday school child would know that earth is not heaven and that we pray for the Kingdom to come. That complete final perfect Kingdom will come when the King comes again (Matthew 26:29).
Our physical corruption awaits the day it will put on incorruption and perfection (1 Corinthians 15). We wait for the redemption of our body (Romans 8:23).
George Eldon Ladd describes the sharp differences between spiritual blessings (and benefits of the mediated Kingdom at this time) and the completed and perfect Kingdom with all its physical benefits and blessings in this way:
The presence of the messianic salvation is also seen in Jesus miracles of healing for which the Greek word meaning to save is used. The presence of the Kingdom of God in Jesus meant deliverance from hemorrhage (Mark 5:34), blindness (Mark 10:52), demon possession (Luke 8:36) and even death itself (Mark 5:23). Jesus claimed that these deliverances were evidences of the presence of the messianic salvation (Matt. 11:4-5). They were pledges of the life of the eschatological Kingdom which would finally mean immortality for the body. The Kingdom of God is concerned not only with mens souls but with the salvation of the whole man.33
The limitation of these physical deliverances illustrates the nature of the present Kingdom in contrast to its future manifestation. In the eschatological Kingdom, all who are accounted worthy to attain to that age (Luke 20:35) will be saved from sickness and death in the immortal life of the resurrection. In the present working of the Kingdom [Christs earthly ministry], this saving power reached only a few. Not all the sick and crippled were saved, nor were all the dead raised. Only three instances of restoration to life are recorded in the Gospels. Men must come into direct contact with Jesus or His disciples to be healed (Mark 6:56). The saving power of the Kingdom was not yet universally operative.34
ALF - ALPHA
Alphas deficiencies outweigh any merit. The acrostic ALF can be used to remember the deficiencies.
Advocating Kingdom Now theories.
Locked into fickle emotions.
Faulty biblical understanding.
Gumbel has some truth but much error. The Alpha course is a well-packaged meal with a dose of e. coli. The non-discerning are at risk. The naive may hold the finger of a small idea and forget the fist of falsities that are smuggled in, in the process.35
The idea of a fatal attraction has come to mean a relationship that was thought to be wonderful, finally turning out to destroy a person. The Alpha Course may very well fit that description as it claims to take people through Bible terrain but in reality turns them inward to their emotions and experiences. It locks them into a detour and cycle of fickle emotions, carnal feelings and self-focus and away from the true lover of their souls. It will be another fad that will leave people dazed, confused, and worse off in the long run. So-called Holy Ghost weekends cannot compare to a sane and balanced daily walk with Jesus Christ through the Scriptures.
As a pastor, hardly a week goes by that there is not someone on the phone trying to sell me a new program, a new video, or new curriculum that is going to make my church all it needs to be. My conviction is that the Scriptures are all I need to make my church what it should be. The problem is so many people are sidetracked and detoured, keeping up with all the new fads being shoved in their faces and hawked at every turn. We need to just say no to the deluge of new programs, so-called revival paraphernalia, the marketing and prostitution of Christianity, as well as the hucksters and sit down with the Scriptures daily and let Gods Word minister to us (2 Timothy 3:15-17). We need to turn from the distractions and fatal attractions and pour ourselves into our local churches, using our gifts for ministry.
1. Dave Hunt, Occult Invasion. Eugene,
Ore.: Harvest House Publishers, 1997, pg. 521.
2. See further, The Quarterly Journal, April-June 1997, The Murky River of Brownsville and January-March 1998, The Raging River of Brownsville.
3. See further, The Pensacola News Journals series of feature articles from November 16-20, 1997. Also subsequent articles by the newspaper on March 5, 1998, April 5, 1998 and June 21-24, 1998. Also see the editorial The Green River of Brownsville Lifestyles of the Rich and Not-so Famous in this issue of the Journal.
4. Christianity Today, Feb. 9, 1998, pg. 37.
5. Ibid., pp. 37, 39.
6. Ibid., pg. 38.
7. See further, Hank Hanegraaff, Counterfeit Revival. Dallas: Word Publishers, 1997, pg. 191.
8. Christianity Today, op. cit., Feb. 9, 1998, pg. 38.
9. The Christian Research Network Journal, Spring 1998, pg. 22.
10. Ibid., pp. 20-21.
11. Ibid., pg. 12.
12. Ibid., pg. 21.
13. Christianity Today, op. cit., Feb. 9, 1998, pg. 39.
14. Nicky Gumbel, Questions of Life. Colorado Springs, Colo.: David C. Cook Communications, 1996, pp. 44-47.
15. Ibid., pg. 44.
16. Ibid., pp. 44-45.
17. Ibid., pp. 119-131.
18. Ibid., pg. 152.
19. Ibid., pp. 199-200.
20. Ibid., pp. 199-215.
21. Ibid., pp. 103-118.
22. Ibid., pg. 44.
23. Ibid., pp. 204, 206.
24. Counterfeit Revival, op. cit., pg. 108.
25. For a fuller investigation, see James R. White, The King James Only Controversy. Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers, 1995, especially pp. 150, 255-257.
26. Charles R. Erdman, The Gospel of Mark. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1967, pg. 198.
27. The Geneva Bible, pg. 1597.
28. Alexander Maclaren, Expositions of Holy Scripture - St. John. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1984, pg. 307.
29. Oliver B. Greene, The Gospel According To John. Greenville, S.C.: The Gospel Hour, Inc., Vol. 2, 1973, pp. 369-370.
30. Harry Ironside, Addresses on The Gospel of John. Neptune, N.J.: Loizeaux Brothers, 1984, pg. 619.
31. The Ryrie Study Bible, New Testament, pg. 191.
32. The Geneva Bible, pg. 1691.
33. George Eldon Ladd, Jesus And The Kingdom. Waco, Texas: Word Books, 1964, pg. 207, emphasis added.
34. Ibid., emphasis added. For a fuller treatment of Kingdom Now theology, the people who advocate it, and the nuances of difference between them, see: Michael G. Moriarty, The New Charismatics. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992; H. Wayne House and Thomas Ice, Dominion Theology: Blessing or Curse? Portland, Ore.: Multnomah Press, 1988; and Bruce Barron, Heaven on Earth? Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992.
35. Quote from Ravi Zacharias, Deliver Us From Evil, tape #2, Word Video Resources, 1997.
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